Netscape 6. Mozilla Roadmap Update: Mozilla 1. Bugzilla UI makeover tracking-bug Current Bugzilla 2. Proposed Bugzilla 2. Bugzilla Home Page. Landfill, the Bugzilla Test Server. The Bugzilla Guide. Download Bugzilla. Mozilla Organization Bugs Page. Bugzilla Implementation for the Mozilla Project. December 17, Digital Photography Graphics. A New Mug for Bugzilla Version 2. Mike Angelo -- 17 December c. No single private company benefited more from, and contributed more to, the Unix and Internet standards than Sun Microsystems.
The company started in by selling high-performance Unix-based workstations and servers. Every Sun computer was shipped with Unix, with hardware and software designed to be hooked up to the Internet. Much of the Internet was networked on Sun Unix machines in the s. Sun even copyrighted the phrase "The network is the computer.
Sun dominated the market for workstations that replaced time-sharing mini-computers in the s. Sun was now one of the fastest growing companies in history, making the Fortune list within five years. Open Systems or open standards were terms coined in the computer industry in the s, mostly due to Sun Microsystems even if Hewlett-Packard invented the term.
In a computer context open systems and closed systems mean, respectively, non-proprietary and proprietary. Sun's commitment to open standards reflected the company founders' emergence out of the milieu of the ARPAnet. When Stanford students Scott McNealy and Vinod Khlosa teamed up with Andy Bechtolsheim, who had developed a new high-performance computer using off-the-shelf components, it was fitting for them to adopt Unix as the operating system for their new computer, Sun 1 as in Stanford University Network. But the software and networking standards were missing.
Commercial versions of Unix were split between various incompatible proprietary versions. Far from being a widely used standard in business, the Sun team had to design a standard and sell the message of open computing to private industry. They took a number of steps to ensure that the BSD Unix on Sun's computers was seen as a viable standard.
The BSD license is in the open source family of licenses and only requires that the copyright holder be referenced in unlimited changes to code open source licenses are discussed in more detail in Chapter 2, "Open Source in Business Terms". When Sun developed the Network File System NFS in , which enhanced network computing by making it possible to share files between different computers, they didn't try to sell it as normal standalone software.
Instead, they licensed it to the industry for a nominal licensing fee; but this time the code was not under any open source agreement. However, they published the specifications for the software on the Usenet so that anyone could design an alternative to the NFS file system if they wanted to avoid the license fee.
The specification was open, but the software was not. Another key step toward a universal operating systems standard was made in The convergence effort was an attempt to blend the best of both variants to come up with a unified system, the Unix System V. That was the trigger for other workstation and corporate computer makers to do a complete turnaround.
In and every company in the IT industry began promoting their own open computing Unix systems--all with the built-in Internet protocols that would set the stage for the commercial explosion of the Internet in the s. Concurrently with the de-escalation of the cold war, U. During the late s there were discussions about the possibility of selling the network to a commercial company.
At the same time, more and more universities were hooking up to the ARPAnet, now called the Internet. They opposed the commercialization of the network.
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Also, NSF formally had the responsibility for the operations and were not allowed to run commercial traffic. The sharing of software was a key part of the success of the Internet. At the universities, paid staff and volunteers both received and provided a continuous stream of free software and constantly improved its functionality. The Internet itself spread across the network nearly instantaneously, without any of the distribution costs of any new software innovation. This "gift" economy allowed new innovations to be quickly tested and to gain a critical mass of users for functions that had not even been envisioned by the creators of the system.
This is the key mechanism and the very foundation of open source. Without it open source wouldn't exist.
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More and more companies realized the value of the Internet, as it had become an international resource of universities and research centers, and gladly hooked up to the net. Commercial applications that were not necessarily for scientific use began appearing. By this time military participation on the Net had become marginal.
In the military researchers pulled out and formed their own research network, and the Internet became exclusively a network of universities and civil companies. From a business perspective, free software and open source are essentially about sharing resources and thereby enhancing the development process. The idea of sharing is the very core of the culture of the Internet. Sharing of software is as natural as sharing of recipes. Neither the term freeware nor open source existed in the early s, but it was essentially the way software was treated. Anyone from another university or company was freely allowed to port and use any program.
Source code was freely distributed, so that anyone could read, change, or take useful parts of it to make a new program. Ultimately, science is an open source enterprise. The scientific method rests on a process of discovery and justification.
here For scientific results to be justified they must be replicable, and that is not possible unless the source information is shared: the hypothesis, the test conditions, and the results. The discovery of new inventions can sometimes happen as an isolated occurrence, but for the results to be credible other scientists must examine the results and repeat the tests to validate the results. Science goes forward only if scientists are able to fertilize each other's ideas.
Much early freely-distributed software was games like Decwar and Adventure, but soon more serious software spread the "open" way. The first shared killer application was email. The earliest email between two computers was sent in Email as such had existed for a long time, but only between users at the same computer. It was the first application to permit two computers to communicate with each other.
Tomlinson wrote a program that could carry a message from one machine and drop it in a file on another using the FTP as a carrier. The problem, though, was to separate the machine user from the machine itself.
He needed a punctuation mark and chose the "at" sign on his Model 33 Teletype terminal. Under the tolerant supervision of ARPA, use of the network for email communication soon surpassed computing resource sharing. Stephen Lukasik, ARPA director from to , saw the importance of email for long-distance collaboration. He soon began virtually directing ARPA via electronic mail. Eric Allman, a student at UC-Berkeley, created the program Sendmail to assist network managers in directing and processing the increasing email traffic.
Sendmail is still used to direct over three-quarters of Internet email traffic. The next killer application came from a European research institute. A self-proclaimed Designer, Generalist, and Contrarian, Nelson's first book was published in ; it introduced the concept of hypertext and hypermedia. He is also the man behind compound document an electronic document that embeds various media, such as pixel graphics, vector graphics, video, sound, and so forth , virtuality, and micro payment.
But his best known work is the almost mythological Xanadu project, introduced in He touted the pioneering vision that computers were media machines, not just calculators. Now, 27 years later, the source code is available at www. Ted Nelson is an anonymous public figure. None of his ideas or visions are widely known, but his importance in the development of the modern IT industry cannot be overestimated. Nelson today directly influences much of the essential software. Berners-Lee wasn't aware of Xanadu when he got his original idea to create the World Wide Web, but he references Nelson in his original proposal.
Xanadu is similar to the World Wide Web, but with built-in mechanisms to manage notes, annotations, revisions, copyrights, and micro payments. Nelson wanted to replace paper with a literary machine that would permit documents to change and track how, and by whom, changes are made.
The important difference between information on paper and electronic information in the Internet is that the latter is dynamic. The electronic document is a set of links that is not created until the user accesses the information. In Xanadu or Udanax, as the software is called for copyright reasons all text is mapped in a linear address space. Parallel with the text is a data structure that specifies format and links in the text. This has the advantage of keeping the content uncluttered. In HTML, information about dependencies between different documents is imbedded in the content.
Xanadu separates the content from the layout. In Xanadu all links are two-way, that is, links contain both go-to and come-from information.